Italian Meat Balls

Introduction To Meat Balls

The origin of meatballs and spaghetti originated from Italy when the poor immigrants from Italy migrated to the US from Italy from (1880-1920)

Italian Meat Balls
Italian Meat Balls

Ingredients,Quantities And Methods To Prepare Italian Meat Balls

Ingredients,quantities and methods and techniques to Prepare the delicious and healthy  Italian meat balls dish.

Step One To Prepare Italian Meat Balls

Ingredients And Their Quantities To Prepare Italian Meat Balls

Yield: 50 portions  Each portion : 2 meat balls with pasta and spaghetti sauce

Onions finely chopped  3 lb

Celery, fine chopped  1 lb

Garlic minced  2 tbsp

Salad oil  8 oz

Method To Prepare Italian Meat Balls

  1. Saute onions celery and garlic in oil.

Step Two To Prepare This Dish

Ingredients And Their Quantities To Prepare This Dish

Bread fresh cubed  1 lb

Stock or milk  24 oz

Ground beef  12 oz

Eggs whole  8

Parmesan cheese grated  4 oz

Parsley finely chopped  3 oz

Oregano minced 1 tbsp

Salt  to taste

Pepper  to taste

Method To Prepare This Dish

2. Combine bread and stock or milk in large mixing bowl; mix well.Add remaining ingredients,blend thoroughly.

3. Using no 12 ice cream scoop as measuring guide, scale 2½ oz meat balls.Scale entire mix up,then mold all balls into round shape.

Step Three To Prepare This Dish

Ingredients And Their Quantities To Prepare This Dish

Stock hot  1 qt

Method To Prepare This Dish

4. Place meatballs in greased roast pan; bake 1/2 hours at 350°F.Remove meat balls into smaller pans add hot stock and cover.Keep hot for service.

5. Serve 2 meatballs on top of a portion of pasta and spaghetti sauce (recipe given below)

Spaghetti Sauce

Ingredients,Quantities and method To Make Spaghetti Sauce

Ingredients and quantities to make spaghetti Sauce are as under

Step One To Prepare Spaghetti Sauce  

Ingredients And Quantities To Make Spaghetti Sauce

Salad oil  1 pt

Onions finely chopped  2 lb

Celery finely chopped  1/2 lb

Green peppers finely chopped  2 oz

Garlic minced  5 tbsp

Method To Make This Sauce

Saute onions celery and green peppers in salad oil for about 10 minutes stirring frequently.

2. Add garlic and cook for about 2 minutes.

Step Two To Make This Sauce

Ingredients And Quantities To Make This Sauce

 Tomatoes crushed  2 no 10 cans

Tomato puree  1 no 10 can

Sweet basil leaves crushed  2 tsp.

Oregano leaves crushed  2 tsp

Bay leaves  2

Salt  to taste

Method To Make This Sauce

3. Add tomatoes,puree and seasonings.

4. Simmer uncovered for 2 hours.

5. Remove from fire and puree sauce through fine food mill.

6. Season with salt ad hold for service.

Note: To make meat sauce for spaghetti  use basic sauce above and add 2 lb of lightly sauteed ground beef drained.

Beef Tenderloin Wellington

Introduction To Beef Tenderloin Wellington

Beef tenderloin wellington is a delicious beef tenderloin (fillet steak) which is covered with pie dough and believe me it will give you a fingerlicking good tasty dish.

beef tenderloin wellington
beef tenderloin wellington

Ingredients,Quantities And Methods To Prepare Beef Tenderloin Wellington

Ingredients,quantities and methods and techniques to Prepare the delicious and healthy beef tenderloin wellington dish.

Step One To Prepare Tenderloin Wellington

 Ingredients And Their Quantities To Prepare Beef Tenderloin Wellington

Yield : 8 portions   each portion : 1′ slice (¾ inch)

For the preparation of the dough:

Bread flour  24 oz

Salt  1/2 tsp

Butter  6 oz

Shortening  6 oz

Egg yolks  3

Olive oil  1/2 oz

Cold water  6 to 8 oz

Method To Prepare Beef Tenderloin Wellington

  1. Sift flour.Fold remaining ingredients into flour for pie dough.Blend lightly.Cover dough with cloth; allow to stand 1 hr.

Step Two To Prepare This Dish

Ingredients And Their Quantities To Prepare This Dish

Beef tenderloin (fillet steak), whole ,trimmed peeled  1(5 lb)

Liver pate (recipe given below) or foie grass  8 oz

Truffle peelings, finely chopped  2 oz

Method To Prepare This Dish

2. Sear tenderloin well, leaving center practically raw.cool.Spread with liver pate or foie gras.sprinkle with chopped truffles.

Step Three To Prepare This Dish

Ingredients And Their Quantities To Prepare This Dish

Egg wash  to brush

Salad oil  for pan.

Method To Prepare This Dish

3. Roll out pate en croute dough 3/16 inch thick.Wrap dough around tenderloin keeping seam on bottom.Fold ends under.Decorate with cut-out made from dough trimmings.

4. Brush surface with egg wash.Place on oiled bake sheet.Bake at 350°F about 40 minutes or until dough is done. (if dough browns too quickly shield with foil).

5. Cut with slices about 3/4 inches thick: serve 1 slice per portion.Serve madeira sauce (recipe given below) separately in gravy boat or appropriate container.

Note if foie gras or liver pate has chopped truffles,truffles may be omitted as a separate ingredients.

Beef Liver Pate

beef liver pate
beef liver pate

Introduction To Beef Liver Pate

Beef liver pate is an appetizer and it gives a wonderful taste to beef tenderloin wellington dish and you can also use it as an appetizer by spreading it on a bread slice or bun after giving slice color in heated pan and adding some butter on the pan.

Preparation Time : 10 minutes Cooking time: 10 minutes

Resting time: 15 minutes  Total time 20 minutes

Ingredients,Quantities And Methods To Prepare Beef Liver Pate

Servings :8 people
2 tablespoons pastured butter or ghee
750 grams beef liver with removed membrane.
1/2 large diced yellow onion
1½ tablespoons heavy cream or coconut cream
1 teaspoon garlic powder
1 tablespoon coconut aminos
1/2 teaspoon paprika
1/2 teaspoon white pepper
.75 teaspoon sea salt

Method To Prepare Beef Liver Pate

  1. In a medium skillet, melt butter or ghee.

  2. Add onion and saute until translucent. Add chopped liver and cook until completely done but not overcooked.

  3. Place cooked onions and liver into a food processor. Add remaining ingredients and blend until smooth and even throughout.

  4. Add more salt if necessary and pulse a few more times to blend well.

  5. Transfer to a mason jar and store in the refrigerator for up to 2 weeks.

Madeira Sauce

madeira sauce
madeira sauce

Ingredients,Quantities And Methods To Prepare Madeira Sauce

1 shallots

Glass of port

salt and pepper  to taste

135 ml madeira wine

475 ml beef stock

3 tbsp flour

7 tbsp usalted butter

Method To Prepare Madeira Sauce

Melt 3 tablespoons of butter.Then add the flour stirring constantly until brown and smooth.Add beef stock and wine-stir and keep stirring until thickened.
Add the shallots and port in a separate pan and reduce.When reduced mix it with medeira sauce and season it.

Bacon And Chicken Pate

Introduction To Chicken And Bacon Pate

Chicken And Bacon Pate is a mixture of minced and lean meat mixed with fat.It tastes best when it is spread on slices and served to the guests in a garnished plate and it is served as an appetizer.

bacon and chicken pate
bacon and chicken pate

Ingredients,Quantities And Methods To Prepare Bacon And Chicken Pate

Ingredients,quantities and methods and techniques to Prepare the delicious and healthy bacon and chicken pate with techniques which will make the dish more delicious and wonderful.

Ingredients And Their Quantities To Prepare This Dish

Cooking time : 1 ½ hours  Serves 8

(1) Bacon rashers (slices)   225 g/8 oz  or   1/2 lb in American

(2) Raw chicken ,thinly sliced  350 g/12 oz Or 3/4 lb in American

(3) Butter 50 g/2 oz  or  1/4 cup in American

(4) Medium onions chopped  1 or 1 in American

(5) Garlic cloves crushed 1-2  or 1-2 in American

(6) Lambs Liver sliced 350 g/12 oz or 3/4 lb in American

(7) Salt and pepper to taste or to taste in American

(8) Mustard powder 1/2 teaspoon or 1/2 teaspoon in American

(9) Chopped thyme 1/2 teaspoon or 1/2 teaspoon in American

(10) Double heavy cream 2 tbsp or 3 tbsp in American

(11) Eggs 2 or 2 in American

(12) Stuffed olives ,sliced 100 g/4 oz or 3/4 cup in American

(13) To garnish:

Chicken stock   225 ml/8 fl oz or 1 cup in American

(14) Gelatin 7 g/¼ oz or 1 in American

(15) Dry sherry 2 tbsp or 3 tbsp in American

(16)Stuffed olives sliced 2 or 2 in American

(17) Sage sprig or sprig in American

Method To Prepare This Dish

De rind the bacon discard the rinds and cut the bacon into pieces the size of matchsticks.Cut the sliced chicken in matchstick pieces,too.Heat the butter in a large frying pan (skillet), fry the onion .garlic and liver for 5 minutes.Put this mixture through a mincer (grinder) or chop finely in a food processor. Blend the liver mixture with the bacon and chicken.Add salt pepper mustard , herbs,cream and eggs.Mix thoroughly then add the slices olives; turn these carefully in the bacon and chicken mixture. Spoon into the terrine or 900 g/2 lb ovenproof dish,smooth flat on top.Cover with a lid or buttered foil.Stand the dish into the bain marie (tin of cold water)and bake in the center of a very moderate ,oven ,160°C/325°F Gas mark 3,for 1¼  hours.Remove the lid or foil and place grease proof (waxed) paper and a light weight on top of the mixture.Allow to cool remove any excess fat from the top of the pate .Heat half the chicken stock in a saucepan, sprinkle the gelatin on top and stir to dissolve.Add the remaining cold stock and the sherry.Allow this jellied mixture to cool until it is the consistency of a thin syrup, then spoon over the pate.Arrange the sliced olives and sage leaves on the half set coating.Leave until firm.Serve with hot toast.This pate should be eaten within 48 hours of cooking.It can be frozen up to 1 month.

Hungarian Veal Goulash

Introduction To Hungarian Veal Goulash

Hungarian Veal Goulash is a delicious stew of meat and vegetables seasoned with spices.It is predominantly eaten in central Europe and other parts of Europe and it is national dish of Hungry

hungarian veal goulash
hungarian veal goulash

Ingredients,Quantities And Methods To Prepare Hungarian Veal Goulash 

Ingredients,quantities and methods to Prepare Hungarian Veal Goulash by following this great recipe.

Step One To Prepare Hungarian Veal Goulash

Ingredients And Their Quantities To Prepare Hungarian Veal Goulash 

Scale lb=pound  pt=pint=16 ounce     oz=1 ounce   gallons= 3.78 litres  qt = 32 ounce

YIELD: 50 portions     EACH PORTION : ABOUT 4 oz . veal

INGREDIENTSQUANTITY
Veal boneless trimm 
ed, cut ( 1 inch cubes)
Salad oil
Onions , small dice 

17 lb
 
1 pt
6 lb

 

Method To Prepare Hungarian Veal Goulash 

1. Saute meat in hot oil and braise with onions.Reduce liquid to ¹/³.

Step Two To Prepare Hungarian Veal Goulash 

Ingredients And Their Quantities To Prepare This Dish

(1) 17 lb veal boneless trimmed,cut in (1 inches in cubes)

(2) 1 pt salad oil

(3) 6 lb onions small diced

Method To Prepare This Dish

2 . Add paprika; stir; then add flour. Cook 5 minutes blending well.Add sachet bag ,brown stock and tomato puree.Bring to a boil.Cover and braise at 350°F. in oven about 1 hour or until tender.

Step Three To Prepare This Dish

INGREDIENTSQUANTITY
Salt 
Pepper
Sour cream 

to taste 
to taste
1 qt

 

Method To Prepare This Dish

3 . Remove cooked meat.Adjust seasoning and hold for service.Sour cream may be served on the side as an optional accompaniment. Spaetzli is usually served with goulash.

Brown Stock

brown stock
brown stock

Ingredients,Quantities And Methods To Prepare Brown Stock

Ingredients,quantities and methods to Prepare Hungarian Veal Goulash 

Step One To Prepare Brown Stock

Scale : lb=pound  gallon =3.78  litres tsp =teaspoon  

YIELD : about 4½ gallon

Ingredients And Their Quantities To Prepare Brown Stock

INGREDIENTSQUANTITY
Beef Bones25 lb

Method To Prepare Brown Stock

Review preparation of stock.Cut bones with meat saw.Place the bones in large roasting pan and brown in preheated oven at 375°F.Turn bones occasionally to brown uniformly. Remove bones from pan and place in stock pot.

Step Two To Prepare Brown Stock

INGREDIENTSQUANTITY
Water to cover 


About 6
gallons

 

Method To Prepare Brown Stock

Drain fat from pan and reserve. Deglaze roast pan with part of water to dissolve crusting Cover bones with cool water and deglazing liquor and bring to a boil.. Reduce heat and simmer for 3 hours.
 

Step Three To Prepare Brown Stock

INGREDIENTSQUANTITY
Mirepoix:  
 
Onions

Celery

Carrots
Tomatoes 
canned

 
Bay leaves

Thyme

Peppercorns 
crushed

Cloves,whole
Parsley stems
2 lb

1 lb

 
½ NO 10
can


3

1 tsp

1 tsp


6

Method To Prepare This Dish

Saute vegetables for mirepoix in reserved fat until brown.Add mirepoix ,tomatoes,spices,herbs to stock Simmer for an additional 3 hours Strain through china cap and cheesecloth.Vent and cool.Refrigerate.Use as required

Shish Kebab

Introduction

Shish kebab is a delicious and  dish of skewered and grilled cubes of meat.It is similar to Shashlik and has originated from caucasus region.

shish kebab
shish kebab

Ingredients, Quantities,Scale And Method To Make A Shish Kebab 

Ingredients,quantities and methods plays a key role in the preparation of a healthy and delicious shish kebab dish.As a delicious food is liked by a majority of folks but it is also necessary that the food is prepared by techniques which make the food healthy and delicious.

So the ingredients and their quantities to make a shish kebab dish are as under 

Step One To Prepare This Dish

Ingredients,Scale And Quantities To Make A Shish Kebab Dish

Scale: pt=16  ounce oz=1 ounce  tbsp=table spoon   tsp=teaspoon

                                                             lb=pound or 16 ounce

YIELD: 20 portions                         Each portion: 1 skewer

INGREDIENTSQUANTITY

Marinade
Salad oil

Olive oil

Vinegar

Lemon juice

Garlic chopped

Salt

Pepper

Marjoram

Thyme

Oregano

Lamb leg,boned(1
inch cubes)

2 pt

1 pt

12 oz

4 oz

2 tbsp

2 tbsp

2 tsp

½ tsp

½ tsp

½ tsp

5 lb

Method To Make A Shish Kebab Dish

1.  Mix all marinade ingredients; pour over lamb and marinate several hours or overnight.

Step Two To Prepare This Dish

Ingredients And Their Quantities To Make A Shish Kebab Dish

 

INGREDIENTSQUANTITY

Mushroom caps
,large

Salad oil

40 pieces


for sauteing

Method To Prepare This Dish

2.  Saute mushrooms caps slightly in oil.

Step Three To Prepare This Dish

Ingredients And Their Quantities To Make This Dish

INGREDIENTSQUANTITY
Pearl onions40 pieces

Method To Prepare This Dish

3.  Blanch onions in fresh.May use canned onions.

Step Four To Prepare This Dish

Ingredients And Their Quantities To Make This Dish

 

INGREDIENTSQUANTITY

Green peppe
rs,large diced,
blanched

Tomatoes,fresh(¾ 
inches thick slices)

40 pieces


40 pieces

Method To Prepare This Dish

4.  Place ingredients on long skewer as follows: (Do not crowd on skewer) tomato,lamb,mushroom,onion,lamb ,pepper,onion lamb,pepper,mushroom ,lamb,tomato.Place in marinade until ready to broil.

5.  Drain well and place under hot broiler about 10 minutes,turning as needed to cook uniformly.Do not burn.

6.  Lamb should be medium unless otherwise indicated.Serve on bed of rice pilaf.

Roast Stuffed Shoulder Of Lamb

Introduction To Roast Stuffed Shoulder Of Lamb

Roast lamb is a very famous and favorite dish in old countries of wales and their are different varieties of dishes prepared by roast lamb.Roast stuffed shoulder of lamb is one of the delicious and unique dish prepared by roasting and stuffing the  shoulder of lamb and it is a great dish to prepare on sacred occasions like Eid Ul Adha.

Roast Stuffed Shoulder Of Lamb
Roast Stuffed Shoulder Of Lamb

Ingredients,Quantities And Methods To Prepare Roast Stuffed Shoulder Of Lamb

Ingredients,Quantities and methods to prepare roast stuffed shoulder of lamb.

Step One Roast Stuffed Shoulder Of Lamb

YIELD : 50 portions    EACH PORTION: 5 OZ.  LAMB.1 OZ,STUFFING,

2 OZ.GRAVY

Ingredients And Quantities To Prepare Roast Stuffed Shoulder Of Lamb

Basic bread stuffing (recipe is given below)  1/3 recipe 

(2) Lamb shoulders  25 lb boned trimmed of excess fat

Method To Prepare Roast Stuffed Shoulder Of Lamb


1. Divide stuffing equally among lamb shoulders and roll mixture inside each shoulder
.Tie securely with butchers twine.

Step Two To Prepare Roast Stuffed Shoulder Of Lamb

Ingredients And Quantity To Prepare Roast Stuffed Shoulder Of Lamb

(1) Oil  4 oz

(2) Salt to taste

(3) Pepper  to taste

(4) Rosemary  2 tsp

Method To Prepare This Dish

2. Place lamb in greased roasting pan ;rub outside of each shoulder with oil, salt,pepper,rosemary.Roast is preheated 350°F.oven for about 2½ hours.

Step Three To Prepare This Dish

Mirepoix

(1) onions coarsely chopped  1 lb

(2) Celery coarsely chopped 1/2 lb

(3) Carrots coarsely chopped  1/2 lb

Method To Prepare This Dish


3. At end of 1 hr., turn lamb on opposite side and add mirepoix.

4. When done remove meat from pan. Cover with clean dump towel ; hold in warm 
place.

Step Four To Prepare This Dish

Method Method To Prepare This Dish


5. Pour about 10 oz.oil and fat from roast pan into a sauce pan and add flour to make 
roux.

6. Place pan in which meat was roasted on range and add stock.Scrape bottom of pan and to loosen little brown particles known as fond. Simmer until vegetables are tender.Strain.

7. Place pan in which meat was roasted on range and add stock Scrape bottom of pan
to add little brown particles known as fond Simmer until vegetables are tender.Strain.

8. Add strained stock to cooked roux.Stirring until thickened and smooth.Strain again 
through fine china cap, adjust seasoning and hold for service.

9. Slice across grain, so that stuffing shows in center of each slice.Serve with 2 oz
gravy.

Basic Bread Stuffing Recipe

Scale:     lb=pound  oz=1 ounce

YIELD: 50 portions                      EACH PORTION:   3 oz  

Step One Method To Prepare Bread Stuffing

INGREDIENTSQUANTITY
Bread, 2 to 4 
days old
6 lb

Method Method To Prepare Bread Stuffing


1. Trim bread; removing crusts and cut it in cubes.Soak it in cold water and then drain it.

Step Two To Prepare Bread Stuffing

INGREDIENTSQUANTITY
Celery chopped

Onions chopped

Butter
or salad oil
or bacon fat
1 lb

3 lb

12 oz


Method To Prepare Bread Stuffing

2. Saute celery and onions in fat until tender.

Step Three To Prepare Bread Stuffing

INGREDIENTSQUANTITY

Poultry seasoning 

Salt

Sage

Parsley chopped
 

¾ oz

1½ oz

¾ oz

1½ oz
 

Method To Prepare Bread Stuffing


3. Combine vegetables, seasoning and bread and toss lightly to blend.

4. Place in greased baking pan and cover with greased paper Bake at 350°F to 375°F.For 1 hour.

Techniques For Meat Cookery

Meat
Meat

Techniques For Meat Cookery

Techniques For Meat Cookery are of many kinds and many different techniques are applied for cooking of meat which are as under.

The term meat is applied to the flesh of beef ,pork,mutton and lamb.The chief nutritional significance of meat is as a source of protein.

Meat generally consist of more connective tissues than other forms of flesh that is chicken and many kinds of fish.The texture and amount of connective tissues vary between animals and even in different parts of the same animal.The connective tissues holds together and connects the muscles,fat cells and fibers and other constituents of the flesh.When this connective tissue is destroyed or weakened,the meat becomes tender.

Meat is highly perishable and requires refrigeration.Low temperatures retard to kill bacterial action and minimize spoilage meats are aged or ripened before purchase.The term ageing is applied to the changes which occurs in meats due to the action of the enzymes (body chemicals) while the meats hang in cold storage. Ageing meats improve their tenderness and flavor.

When meats are over aged or over ripened they begin to spoil and become discolored,moldy and slimy. They develop an off flavor and odor and are no longer suitable for service.

We cook meat in order to sterilize it,make it more palatable,improves its appearance and supply a valuable nutritional need.

Ways To Cook Meat

There are two basic ways to cook meat.Meat may be cooked by dry heat and by moist heat.Each of these  ways has modifications that give a variety of meat cooking procedures.

The methods of procedure to be used depends on the kind of meat;the quality and grade ;and the cut.

Under the moist heat method are (1) steaming,(2) boiling (3)poaching

Dry heat methods include (1) Roasting or baking (2) sauteing (3) Pan frying.Combinations of the two methods,dry heat and and moist heat,include (1) braising and (2)stewing the meat.

Deep fat frying is considered as a separate area however although some foods are deep fat fried from the raw stage,others are put through one or more of the previously mentioned cooking methods before they are deep fat fried.Deep fat frying is a popular way to use leftover If the leftovers are wholesome foods they may either be combined with different foods or converted to present new products.There is usually some type of breading used with fried foods that aids in sealing the product.The sealing of the product help to protect the foods from excessive grease absorption and to give it a crisp,palatable coating.

Moist Heat Combinations

In general the moist heat methods or combinations are applied to the more economical cuts of meat.These meats are tougher and requires moist heat to break down the connective tissues and make them tender.There are market tenderizing agents made from papaya juice and other ingredients containing enzymes that break down the connective tissue.These are used to a great extent in commercial feeding operations with low menu prices.While these low cost meats are satisfactory for such menus.It must be remembered that there is no substitute for quality.

Steaming

meat-steaming
meat-steaming

Steaming is not used to a a great degree in meat cookery except in combination with other methods,although some steaming is done in institutional operations .In steaming a smaller amount of liquid is used than in boiling.Steaming may be done in covered pot on the range.

  Boiling

boiling meat
boiling meat

Boiling is the moist heat methods of cookery method used extensively for less tender cuts of meat.Boiling is recognized and accepted terminology,but should be amended to mean simmering.Meat should not be boiled,but simmered to retain its full nutritive value and to keep it from getting stingy.With the exception of salted or smoked meats,most other meats should be placed in a stockpot in boiling water  (212 degree F).Cold water aids in extracting flavor and juice and is used principally in the making of stocks.

The temperature of the water or the stock will be lowered when the meat is added.When the boiling temperature is again reached,the stock should be skimmed to remove any scum and the heat reduced or the pot moved to a part of the range where it will simmer and not boil.Remember that vigorous boiling will produce cloudy stock and increase shrinkage of the meat.

If different Quality or different size cuts are cooked in the same pot,butchers twine is sometimes tied to the smaller or more tender cuts so that they may be easily checked during the cooking process and removed when cooked.

After simmered meat have become tender,it may be held on the steamable for the future service.Meat so held should either be stored in liquid or wrapped with clean wet towels so that it does not dry out in the heat of the steamable.

Meats to be served cold,such as corned beef may be cooked and pressed in a pan with a heavy weight on the top.The weight compress the meat which aids in slicing and produces greater yield.All meats excluding the poultry are sliced across the grain.

Many boiled meats because of their bland flavor are served with tangy and savory sauces to increase their palatability and make them more appetizing..The following are the examples of the meats that are at their best when broiled or simmered.

fresh brisket of beef

corned brisket of beef

Ham,cured or smoked

Short ribs of beef

Ham hocks

Fresh Spareribs

Polish sausage

Ox tongue,smoked or cured

shoulder or breast of veal

Smoked Pork Butt or picnic

Fresh shoulder of beef

Poaching

poaching
poaching

Poaching is simmering process that takes place in a small amount of water.The stock or water in which the poaching is done barely bubbles.This process is used primarily with specialty items and the variety meats such as sweetbreads,brains and kidneys.

In the poaching process,items are seldom cooked well done.Poaching helps them to set or hold their shape.;makes it easy to remove tough tissues or membranes.and prepares them for final cooking procedures such as sauteing or boiling.Poaching also extends keeping qualities as in variety meats which are highly perishable when raw.The poaching of kidneys also extracts the strong odor that sometimes prevails and makes them more appetizing.

Dry Heat Methods

Dry heat methods are intended for the better cuts of meat that have little connective tissues and have become readily tender when cooked.The two methods are not interchangeable as the economical cuts of the meat are never at their best when cooked by dry heat.On the other hand it is waste of money and food to cook tender cuts by any moist heat methods .The exception to this rule are extremely rare,although some of the less tender cuts,such as chuck or bot to round are often ground as (hamburger) and then cooked by the dry heat method (either grilling or broiling)

Sauteing

sauteing
sauteing

To saute is to fry lightly and quickly in a small amount of fat.Only tender cuts are used for this method.Its use is usually restricted to thin cuts of meat that do not require extensive cooking.The smaller and thinner the cut ,the more rapidly the searing and cooking should take place.When blood rises and appears on the surface the meat should be turned over and cooked on the other side.If the product is breaded ,it should be turned when the underside is golden brown.

The utensil used for sauteing should have a heavy bottom and be just large enough to hold the product to be cooked.

Nearly all sauteing of meat is done uncovered.

Many of the sauteed meats are served with sauces made from the crust that coat the bottom of the pan in which the meat have been cooked.The excess fat is poured off and the meats removed and held in a warm place until services.

The utensil is then deglazed by scrapping and swishing it with wine or stock with the resulting liquid or fond allowed to boil until the remaining crusts have been entirely dissolved.A prepared sauce or gravy is is sometimes added and it may be further seasoned to produce the desired flavor.The sauce which is usually of light consistency may be poured over the meat and served separately with an appropriate garnish.

examples of meats to be sauteed are;

Scalloping of veal,chausseur

Tenderloin tips,mushroom sauce

veal cutlet;milanaise

Pork tenderloin,saute normand

Pan Frying

pan frying
pan frying

Pan frying differs from sauteing principally in the amount of fat used in frying.Considerably more fat is used in frying.This prevents the formation of crusting on the bottom of the pan.

Pan frying is used extensively in cooking poultry and some fish.Products that require a longer cooking time are first browned in a pan on the top of the range until they acquire a golden brown colour and then finished with lower colour and then finished with lower heat,uncovered in a slow or moderate oven.

Roasting Or Baking

baking meat
baking meat

The term roasting was originally applied to the large pieces of meats over an open fire.The meats were spitted or held over the fire by rods inserted in the ends of the meat or entirely through the body cavity.The splits were held in place by forked sticks and turned by hand to cook the meat uniformly.

This type of cooking is now referred to as open roasting or barbecuing.Marinades or liquid in which meat is soaked prior to cooking play an important role in barbecued foods.Spicy sauces quite often accompany food prepared in this manner.

As now used, the terms roasting and baking refers to cooking uncovered in the oven with little or no added liquid.

Meat to be roasted is usually placed fat side up in a shallow roasting pan that most nearly approximates the size of the roast.The roast should not be covered .

Cooking meats at at low temperatures ;instead of high temperatures;instead of high temperatures results in ;(1) a more tender products,(2)a more flavorful and juiceful product,(3) less shrinkage (3)greater yields ,because of the ease of carving.There is less watching of the meat cooking,less cleaning afterwards,since there is no burning on the pans and equipment and less fuel is consumed when constant low temperatures are used.

The old method of starting a roast at high temperatures to sear the meat and then reducing the temperatures has been corrected.It has been found that a constant temperature produces the best product if the oven is properly preheated.

The fat content of the meat will determine whether additional fats or oils are necessary to prevent burning.Extreme lean cuts are sometimes barded or larded to permit proper cooking and to give additional flavor.(larding is insertion of strips of salt pork along the surface of the of the meat. Barding is covering lean meat with thin slices of fat bacon or salt pork.

Roasts are sometimes seasoned with spices ,herbs,salt,pepper and minute silvers of garlic.Meats are usually salted on the fat side as excess of salt tend to draw the moisture out on exposed or very lean surfaces ,making the cooked meat dry.

A mirepoix consisting of carrots ,onions and salary is usually added to meat either at the beginning or during the roasting period depending on the length of the cooking time Fresh vegetables must be used in the mirepoix to obtain good gravy. Each gravy should be derived from the meat with which it is associated.Roast beef is generally served with natural gravy called “au jus naturel”

Roasting temperatures vary from 250° F to 375 °F,although there may be exceptions, large cuts of meat such as steamship rounds varying from 50 to 70 pounds ,are roasted for longer periods at extremely low temperatures.A 50 lb steamship round may cook approximately six hours to six and a half hours at 300° F.

Meats placed in the oven fat side up are in some measures self basting or moistened by their own fat.Further occasional basting may be necessary to prevent dryness.The back or rear of the oven is usually slightly hotter than the front because there is some heat loss at the oven door.It is sometimes necessary to change the position of the meat during the roasting period to insure the uniform cooking.

Determining Doneness Of Meat

determining doneness of meat
determining doneness of meat

The degree of the doneness of the meat influences shrinkage.As the doneness is increased the shrinkage is increased by extraction of of moisture.Pork must be well done to kill the trichina parasite but unduly overcooking it results in a dried out products with a high degree of shrinkage.When cooked to the correct degree of doneness ,roasts are juicier,give more flavor and yield.

Degree of doneness may be determined by (1 )time weight ratio (2 )insertion of needles (3) Applying light pressure with the fingers (4) Meat thermometer.

In the time weight ratio,a specific number of minutes of cooking time is allowed for each pound of meat.Insertion of needles is used to test the internal temperatures of the meat by placing the withdrawn metal against the cheek or other sensitive skin area.The degree of heat transmitted from the meat to the needle aids in determining the degree of doneness.The meat should not be pierced by heavy forks or tested constantly as these procedures result in the bleeding and loss of moisture.

The meat may also be tested by applying light pressure with the fingers to the middle or largest portion of the meat.The springier or more yielding the meat,the lesser the degree of doneness.The less yielding or the firmer the flesh,the greater degree of doneness.However the texture of some meats vary.A roast may sometimes feel undercooked,although it is actually because of the peculiar quality occasionally found in the meat.The characteristics of different cuts of the meat at different times,as well as the humans trait of error,have encouraged the search for a more accurate means of determining doneness.

When properly used a meat thermometer that registers the internal temperature of the meat is the most accurate means of determining doneness.The thermometer should be inserted in the thickest portion of the meat away from bones or fat pockets with the tip penetrating just to the middle.

Broiling And Grilling

broiling and grilling of meat
broiling and grilling of meat

Broiling is a popular method of dry heat cookery which is done by dry heat ,very hot coals,such as charcoal and briquets or under gas flame or electric units .Some electric units also have heating elements on the sides.

The intense heat used in broiling forces the blood in the meat away from the source of heat.The meat should be turned during the cooking process so that both sides will be equally done.

Only tender cuts should be used for broiling .All broiling should be done to order when possible and the meat cooked to the degree of doneness specified by the guest.

For banquet of large parties meat is often broiled a few minutes ahead to facilitate service.The meat is broiled very rare and removed from the heat.It is placed in the pan and reserved until services time when it is finished in the oven or preferably under the broiler.

Care must be taken not to overcook the food in the broiler as they lose natural flavors,juices and nutritive value.The broiler should be preheated before cooking time.If using gas the broiler should be heated until the ceramics (the brick-type elements over the grill) are radiating heat.If using electricity the reflector plates should be radiating full heat.Charcoal or briquits should be burned to glowing coals.

The intense heat of the broiler rack or grill rack will help to prevent sticking.Nearness of the broiler rack or grill will help to prevent sticking .Nearness of the broiler racks to the heat determines the cooking time of the products.

The proper location of the broiler rack or grill rack will help to prevent sticking.Nearness of the broiler rack to the heat determines the cooking time of the product.Most foods are brushed with or dipped in unseasoned oil or other suitable fat before being placed on the rack.The oil prevents sticking and affords protection to the meat .It aids in retarding the dryness and cracking and help to give the surface of the products good color.

Food less than moderate fat are not desirable for broiling since they tend to dry out.When very lean foods are used,fat supplement is advisable.